White Papers

White Papers

Montrose Environmental Group professionals are responsible for flawless execution in each stage of a project from conceptualization, budgeting, permitting, and design all the way through completion and reporting. Our experts are resources for understanding and details on all aspects of environmental testing, remediation, and renewable energy. For insight on topics not displayed in our growing library, please visit the Contact Us page to seek additional guidance.

Landfill Gas Collection And Groundwater Protection

ABSTRACT:  Landfill Gas (LFG) has been identified as a major source of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminants in the groundwater underlying landfills. Landfill operators are missing a major opportunity to reduce costs and minimize future liability by not recognizing this major source of contamination.

LFG System Design: Finite Element Method

ABSTRACT: The migration of landfill gas (LFG) can cause problems such as asphyxiation, groundwater contamination and odors, and health risks. A common goal of most LFG control systems is to mitigate these and other concerns associated with LFG. This paper presents finite element modeling techniques that can be used by a LFG system designer to help optimize LFG collection systems.

Landfill Gas and Groundwater Contamination

ABSTRACT:  Organic contaminants travel with LFG contaminating underlying groundwater. This paper examines the mechanism and control of contamination. The four basic mechanisms are
1) Direct groundwater contact,
2) LFG condensate leaching into adjacent landfill soil,
3) LFG vadose zone contamination with infiltrate migration into groundwater, and
4) Leachate migrating to the groundwater.

The Effects of Atmospheric Pressure on the Availability of Gas from a Landfill

ABSTRACT:  LFG recovery efficiency can be negatively affected by atmospheric pressure variations. These variations can be used to supplement landfill testing. LFG system atmospheric pressure changes were quantified to examine methane recoverability.

Isokinetic Sampling Train to Eliminate Bias

Abstract: When a volatile organic compound (constant rate; no nozzle) method is applied to a condition with water or aerosol droplets, there is a significantly low bias to the results. An isokinetic sampling train can be utilized to eliminate this bias.

EPA/TUV Certified FTIR CEM and Ultra Low Level HCl CEM for Combustion Facilities

Abstract: FTIR-based CEMS have been deployed in the field to achieve low maintenance and very low MDC. It presents high-sensitivity FTIR-based analyzers designed specifically for CEM-based components HCl, HF, CH2O, CH4, and N2O. EPA, EPRI, and CMA studies involving instruments from multiple manufacturers tested on gas and coal pilot plants use MKS FTIR as a true reference.

Ultra-Low Level HCl CEMs for Coal Combustion Facilities Using FTIR and Associated Performance Specifications

Abstract: This document highlights performance specifications for FTIR CEMS, FTIR reference methods for CEMS Validation and RATA, validation and on-going HCl CEM PS-18, and the FT-IR light modulator creating the interferogram.

Portable Open-Path Optical Remote Sensing (ORS) Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Instrumentation Miniaturization and Software for Point and Click Real-Time Analysis

Abstract:  Advances in hardware have miniaturized the emissions spectrometer and associated optics, rendering them easily deployed in the field. Such systems are also suitable for vehicle mounting, and can provide high quality data and concentration information in minutes.

Analytical Assessment of e-Cigarettes: From Contents to Chemical and Particle Exposure Profiles

Abstract:  The plethora of electronic cigarettes devices, formulations, and flavors, combined with the lack of industry standards and labeling requirements, quality control, and limited product oversight, has given rise to public concern about initiation of use and potential for adverse exposure and negative long-term effects.

Aldehyde Levels in E-Cigarette Aerosol: Findings from a Replication Study and from Use of a New-Generation Device

Abstract: A recent study identified high aldehyde emissions from e-cigarettes (ECs), that when converted to reasonable daily human EC liquid consumption, 5 g/day, gave formaldehyde exposure equivalent to 604–3257 tobacco cigarettes.

Reinventing California’s ELAP An ACIL Perspective.

Abstract: This document presents the ACIL as the national trade association representing independent, commercial scientific and engineering firms. Accreditation is a key concern for ACIL laboratories that provide the majority of tests and measurements for environmental regulatory purposes.

PM CEMS Certification and Quality Assurance

Abstract: This publication outlines a prescriptive approach to gaseous CEMS and how to check their precision and accuracy based on calibration. Click to learn a performance-based approach to PM CEMS in order to meet criteria and determine precision and accuracy through correlation with reference method results.

ICAC Submits Comments on Quad J Portion of EPA Revisions to Test Methods, Performance Specifications, and Testing Regulations for Air Emission Sources

Abstract: This action proposes technical and editorial corrections and revisions to regulations related to source testing of emissions. This proposed rule will make corrections and updates to testing provisions that contain inaccuracies and outdated procedures, and provide alternatives to existing testing regulations.

Guidance Document on Startup and Shutdown Under MATS

Abstract: The objective of this document is to provide operators of coal fired boilers with guidance on safe and effective methods of starting the APC equipment and on measurement issues in order to comply with EPA’s startup and shutdown provisions in the MATS and IB MACT rules as well as startup rules that become part of operating permits.

Guide to FTIR Technology for Compliance Testing, Performance Specification, & Continuous Emissions Monitoring (CEM) of Target Gases

Abstract: The intention of this Whitepaper is to provide a general understanding to the reader about the technology and uses of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) instrumentation for identifying and quantifying gases in near real time from a simple or complex gaseous matrix.

Monitoring of HCI

Abstract: This publication provides an overview of the existing technologies available to measure HCl from combustion sources. Chloride exists in varying levels in most combustion fuels. Conventional flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, either wet or dry, are highly effective at removing HCl emissions.

Conducting a Successful Mercury Control Demonstration Test at a Coal-Fired Power Boiler

Abstract: This publication provides guidance on how to conduct a successful demonstration of mercury control technology at a coal-fired boiler. Planning is a critical part of conducting any test; identifying clear objectives is critical to beginning the process.

Ammonia Measurement for Combustion Sources

Abstract: This publication provides as overview of the existing ammonia measurement technologies available to evaluate ammonia slip from combustion sources. Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions contribute significantly to the national environmental problems, including acid rain, photochemical smog (ozone), and elevated fine particle levels.

Aldehyde Levels in E-Cigarette Aerosol: Findings from a Replication Study and from Use of a New-Generation Device

Abstract: A recent study identified high aldehyde emissions from e-cigarettes (ECs) that, when converted to reasonable daily human EC liquid consumption, 5 g/day, gave formaldehyde exposure equivalent to 604–3257 tobacco cigarettes. We replicated this study and also tested a new-generation atomizer under verified realistic (no dry puff) conditions in order to refute results that greatly exaggerated the health impacts of ECs.

Quantitative Leak Testing for Soil Gas Wells Using a Commercially Available Helium Tracer Shroud

Abstract: This document presents design considerations, use, and procedures for a commercially available Helium tracer soil gas sampling shroud from an internationally accredited commercial environmental testing laboratory with soil gas measurement capabilities. The design is based on soil gas sampling using the Helium shroud technique described in SW 846 Method 0040 (USEPA, 1996).

Operational & Advocacy Issues Effecting Commercial Laboratories Third Party NELAP Accreditation, The Time Has Arrived

Abstract: Conformity assessment (i.e., inspection and certification) carried out by third-party private sector organizations is well established and recognized by several federal agencies. Allowing third party private accrediting bodies (AB’s) to provide National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Program (NELAP) accreditation services in support, or in place of state AB’s appears critical to the maintenance, if not the survival of NELAP. ACIL, the trade association for commercial laboratories takes the position that there is little, if any, need for federal or state agencies to administer their own programs or systems for NELAP laboratory accreditation, either for themselves or for recognition of AB’s.

The Effect of California’s Withdrawal from NELAP

Abstract: Laboratory accreditation services performed by appropriately recognized Accrediting Bodies (AB) are essential to the National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Program (NELAP). In January 2014, rather than be dropped as a recognized NELAP AB by the NELAC Institute (TNI, www.nelac-institute.org) for failing to plan or implement corrective actions for long term substandard performance, California (CA) withdrew from NELAP. The facts behind CA’s decision and the effect of this withdrawal on commercial laboratories inside and outside of CA are explored.

Reinventing California’s Lab Accreditation Program…An ACIL Perspective

Abstract: This document summarizes ACIL’s views of the work accomplished and required to bring California’s Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Program (ELAP) to a position of credibility. ACIL advocates a system incorporating 3rd party nongovernmental Accreditation Body (AB) companies performing lab assessments to the TNI standard as essential for the timely correction of issues troubling ELAP. Similarly, ACIL supports TNI’s recognition of nongovernmental AB’s for the provision of NELAP assessment services.

An Economic Evaluation of Carbon Molecular Sieve Membranes in Landfill Gas Applications

ABSTRACT:  Carbon molecular sieve membranes (CMSM) have shown promise for the separation of carbon dioxide from methane. CMSM offers increased permeance, selectivity, and stability over alternate membranes. This paper discusses the performance and economics of CMSM in landfill gas energy recovery applications.